University of california sat essay validity studies

Usually, authors develop their thesis in two ways: These statements could be likened to bricks that the author uses to build a logical structure resulting in a conclusion.

University of california sat essay validity studies

Yet the true utility of the SAT I is frequently lost in this rhetoric as admissions offices search for a fair and accurate way to compare one student to another. Many colleges and universities around the country, in dropping their test score requirements, have recently confirmed what the research has shown all along - the SAT I has little value in predicting future college performance.

What is the SAT I supposed to measure? The SAT I is designed to predict first-year college grades - it is not validated to predict grades beyond the freshman year, graduation rates, pursuit of a graduate degree, or for placement or advising purposes.

How well does the SAT I predict first-year college grades? This usually involves examining the relationship between test scores and first-year college grades, generally expressed as the correlation coefficient or r value. This number is deceptive, however. To determine how much of the difference in first-year grades between students the SAT I really predicts, the correlation coefficient must be multiplied by itself.

The result, called r squared, describes the difference or variation among college freshman grades. Thus, the predictive ability or r squared of the SAT I is just. With a correlation of. What do the SAT I validity studies from major colleges and universities show?

Validity research at individual institutions illustrates the weak predictive ability of the SAT. Norman in Educational and Psychology Measurement, Vol. By far the most useful tool proved to be class rank, which predicted 9.

University of california sat essay validity studies

Combining SAT I scores and class rank inched this figure up to Another study of 10, students at 11 selective public and private institutions of higher education found that a point increase in SAT combined scores, holding race, gender, and field of study constant, led to a one-tenth of a grade point gain for college GPA Vars, F.

This offered about the same predictive value as looking at University of california sat essay validity studies an applicant's father had a graduate degree or her mother had completed college. The results from the UC validity study, which tracked 80, students fromhighlighted the weak predictive power of the SAT I, with the test accounting for only Bates College, which dropped all pre-admission testing requirements infirst conducted several studies to determine the most powerful variables for predicting success at the college.

One study showed that students' self-evaluation of their "energy and initiative" added more to the ability to predict performance at Bates than did either Math or Verbal SAT scores. In comparing five years of enrollees who submitted SAT scores with those who didn't, Bates found that while "non-submitters" averaged points lower on the SAT I, their freshman GPA was only five one-hundredths of a point lower than that of "submitters.

Data they analyzed demonstrated that using the high school record alone to predict who would complete a bachelor's degree resulted in "correct" admissions decisions How well does the SAT I predict college achievement for females, students of color, and older students?

The poor predictive ability of the SAT I becomes particularly apparent when considering the college performance of females. Longstanding gaps in scores between males and females of all races show that females on average score points lower than males on the SAT I, but receive better high school and college grades.

In other words, the test consistently under-predicts the performance of females in college while over-predicting that of males. Measuring the SAT I's predictive ability for students of color is more complicated since racial classifications are arbitrary.

For students whose first language isn't English, test-maker research shows the SAT I frequently under-predicts their future college performance. Though both groups earned equivalent college grades, the Hispanic students received on average combined SAT I scores that were 91 points lower than their non-Hispanic White peers.

The ability of SAT I scores to predict freshman grades, undergraduate class rank, college graduation rates, and attainment of a graduate degree is weaker for African-American students than for Whites. Such discrepancies call into question the usefulness of using the SAT I to assess African-American students' potential.

The SAT I also does a poor job of forecasting the future college performance of older students.

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ETS acknowledges that the test's predictive power is lower for "non-traditional" students who may be out of practice taking timed, multiple-choice exams. For this reason, many colleges and universities do not require applicants who have been out of high school for five years or more, or those over age 25, to submit test scores.

How should a college or university go about conducting its own validity study? Claiming that the VSS's methods "are significantly flawed, and this leads colleges to misleadingly positive conclusions" about the SAT I, Crouse and Trusheim argue for the inclusion of two categories aimed at measuring the real world ways standardized tests are used.

The first addition - a "Crosstabulation of Predicted Grades" - would show the extent to which a college would admit the same students regardless of whether it uses the high school record, or high school record plus test scores.

The second - a table predicting "College Outcomes" - would show to what degree adding SAT I scores to the high school record improves the rate of college graduation, the average high school grades of admitted students, and the percent of admitted students with average first-year college grade-point averages above 2.

They also recommend including separate prediction and tabulation tables broken down by gender, ethnicity, family income, age, and whatever other criteria colleges believe would affect performance.

In addition, schools should look at how well the SAT I predicts other outcomes such as graduation rates and four-year grades. The weak predictive power of the SAT I, its susceptibility to coaching, examples of test score misuse, and the negative impact test score use has on educational equity all lead to the same conclusion - test scores should be optional in college admissions.

The nearly colleges and universities that already admit substantial numbers of freshman applicants without regard to test scores have shown that class rank, high school grades, and rigor of classes taken are better tools for predicting college success than any standardized test.Asian American groups have made variants of these arguments since the early s and have filed multiple complaints against and urged investigations into a .

What is the required minimum GPA and SAT/ACT for admission? We do not hold freshman applicants to a specific minimum test score. Freshman applicants must have at least a GPA for California residents or a GPA for non-residents, and there is no minimum required score for the SAT or .

Comprehensive information on admission at Loyola Marymount University, including admission requirements and deadlines, early and regular admission rates, GPAs and test scores of recently admitted freshmen, and more. University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Santa Barbara, Use of SAT/ACT Essay: SAT: Used as a.

But beyond the predictive validity the researchers question the overemphasis of SAT. SAT scores have strong positive correlation with family income, parent’s education, and school rank, while HSGPA has considerably weaker relation. the SAT that SAT II scores are "less sensitive" to socioeconomic factors than SAT I * Presented at the American Educational Research Association annual meeting, Chicago, April 25, and at the Center for Studies in Higher Education seminar, Berkeley, May 2, The SAT Essay is a lot like writing assignments you'll see in college.

It asks you to read a passage and analyze how the author constructs a persuasive argument.