Pierce, FL; James H. The pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Progress doi: History and Overview Fig.
If uncertainties in the hurricane strength require warning for the next higher category of hurricane, then major increases in the number of people evacuated and preparation costs would be required.
Also, the number of people evacuated would be substantially more than tens of thousands of people. Economic factors receive serious consideration from the National Hurricane Center NHCand local and state officials consider not only direct, but also indirect effects, on people's response.
People will not continually take expensive actions that, afterwards, prove to have been unnecessary. If we consistently overwarn by wide margins, people will not respond and such actions could result in large loss of life. To maintain credibility with the general public, NHC and local and state officials cannot treat all hurricanes as if they were Camilles, Hugos, or Andrews.
Such an exaggerated approach may indeed provide maximum protection of life for a given event, but it endangers many more lives the next time when the threat may be even greater. Many of these people have been through weaker hurricanes or been brushed by the fringe of a major hurricane.
The result is a false impression of the damage potential of these storms. This frequently breeds complacency and delayed action that could result in the loss of many lives.
For example, people living on barrier islands might be reluctant to evacuate under "blue sky" conditions until they actually see the threat water rising and winds increasing.
The result could be people trapped in those areas as water cuts off escape routes. This situation nearly happened for about people on western Galveston Island during Hurricane Alicia of This type of response primarily results from three major factors.
First, major hurricanes are infrequent events for any given location. Second, for the past three decades, major hurricanes striking the United States coast have been less frequent than previous decades, although that rate appears to be rising.
Finally, it has been during this period of low hurricane activity that the great majority of the present coastal residents moved to the coast.
However, with the tremendous increase of populations in high-risk areas along our coastlines, the concern is that we may now not fare as well in the future when hurricane activity inevitably returns to the frequencies experienced during the s—60s.
Hurricane Hugo, Hurricane Hugo, crossing the coast of South Carolina on September 21,at that point, was the strongest storm to strike the United States since Camille pounded the Louisiana and Mississippi coasts in At one point east of Guadeloupe, a NOAA research aircraft measured winds of mph and a central pressure of It was somewhat less fierce when it reached the United States mainland.
Storm tides of approximately 20 ft were experienced along part of the South Carolina coast, constituting record stormtide heights for the U. Although the highest surges struck sparsely populated areas north of Charleston, South Carolina, damage was extensive and lives were lost.
Forty-nine fatalities directly related to the storm were recorded; 26 in the United States and its Caribbean Islands, and 23 on other Leeward Islands. Hurricane Andrew, Hurricane Andrew slammed into heavily populated south Florida as the most destructive storm in U.
Andrew formed as a tropical wave off the African coast on August 14, ; by August 22, it was classified as a tropical storm. As it neared the Bahamas and Florida on August 23, Andrew had reached hurricane intensity.
When it was over, more than 60, homes were destroyed andpeople were left homeless. Andrew had a central pressure of millibars mb at landfall making it among the three most intense hurricanes of the twentieth century. Fifteen people died in Florida as a direct result of Andrew's fury.
Another 29 lives were lost as a result of indirect effects of the hurricane within the next three weeks. The relatively low loss of life, compared to the hundreds that died in the storm and in Camille, stands as a testimony to the success and importance of hurricane awareness campaigns, preparedness planning, and actions by the joint efforts of federal, state, county, and city emergency forces.
The news media played a major role in the life-saving actions before, during, and after Andrew hit. As Andrew came ashore first in the northwest Bahamas, the storm surge reached an astonishing 23 ft.
In Florida, a ft storm tide, which headed inland from Biscayne Bay, is a record for the southeast Florida peninsula. Storm tides of more than 7 ft in Louisiana also caused severe flooding. Evacuation from threatened coastal areas is the only defense from the storm surge's potential for death and destruction.
After the National Hurricane Center NHC issued hurricane watches and warnings, massive evacuations were ordered in Florida and Louisiana by emergency management officials. It is estimated that more than two million people evacuated to safety in Florida and Louisiana as Andrew approached.
Based on new research, scientists upgraded the storm from a Category 4, to a Category 5, the highest on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. In their re-analysis of Hurricane Andrew's maximum sustained surface-wind speeds, NOAA's National Hurricane Center Best Track Committee, a team of hurricane experts, concluded winds were mph—20 mph faster than earlier estimated—as the storm made landfall.
Herbert Saffir, a structural engineer who co-designed the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, joined the committee as an observer and reviewed the team's results.
The upgrade makes Andrew only the third Category 5 wind speeds greater than mph hurricane on record to strike the continental United States. There is always some uncertainty in determining the maximum winds in a hurricane, and Andrew is no exception.
The NHC's previous estimate was mph, based on the science available in Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time whereas climate is the average condition of the atmosphere of a specific place over a long period of time, usually over 30 years. Here's a look at the storm and its impact on Hawaii.
RAIN MAKER The storm named Lane was barreling toward the Hawaiian Islands as a powerful Category 5 hurricane in the middle of the week. Previously Asked Questions. Tropical Weather.
Go here for more about hurricanes. Hurricane/Tropical FAQ from NOAA. Hurricane Season: . The Latest on tropical storm Olivia and its impact on Hawaii (all times local): a.m.
Hurricane Stan was a rather weak but deadly tropical cyclone that affected areas of Central America in early October The eighteenth named storm and eleventh hurricane of the Atlantic hurricane season, Stan formed from a tropical wave on October 1 after it had moved into the western Caribbean nationwidesecretarial.com depression slowly intensified, and reached tropical storm intensity the following.
Genomic analysis of several pathogen isolates from the outbreak in comparison with the isolates found in the more recent Manatee County outbreak indicates the current outbreak is a result of incomplete eradication in (27).