How To Submit Your Article: For Further Details Contact: Almost everyday there are chilling instances of violence, ethnic cleansing, heinous torture, child abuse, man slaughter and several other human rights violations. This research paper introduces the discussion of legal responses to violence against women.
First and foremost is novelty: On the other end of the spectrum are several pragmatic reasons: We love the metaphor of transparency e. We love the idea of erasing our architecture completely, and in fact a new project in South Korea aims to do just that using glass-embedded LEDs tied to projectors behind the building, so that the building will display an image of what lies behind it.
Our love of glass also proceeds because of — and in spite of — misunderstandings about the sustainability of highly glazed buildings. We confuse the need for useful daylight with having more daylight; we think that if a connection to the outdoors is good, more transparency must be better.
We think that because our commercial buildings are internal-load dominated, that the envelope performance does An analysis of the concept of the regionalism matter. Glass, universalism, and sustainability Our fascination with glass and the push for more transparency has led us towards all-glass buildings around the globe.
Highly glazed buildings are popping up in every nation, climate, urban context, and a wide array of building programs. The difference between the design of the envelope for a commercial tower in China and a high-end residential building in Seattle is surprisingly small, despite vast differences in culture, politics, climate, urban context, program, and even the method of architectural production between the firms that produce these buildings.
The long history of transparency and glass within buildings has been documented well by others and will not be repeated here. But it is important to note that the rise of all-glass buildings, especially curtain wall envelopes, is strongly related to the history of air conditioning.
Air conditioning is what made the dream of all-glass buildings habitable and therefore possible in practice. As we strive to reduce energy use and design sustainable buildings, we take aim at mechanical systems; but to address the problem fully we must also re-assess the viability and appropriateness of all-glass envelopes, which cannot function without those same mechanical systems.
This globalization of similar all-glass designs is a critical issue for sustainability within the built environment and our ability to reduce carbon emissions.
Glass is a poor insulator which leads to higher heating energy use and wintertime thermal discomfort in cold climates; in warm climates it admits solar gains, leading to high cooling energy use and summertime thermal discomfort.
Excessive glass creates high contrast between the bright building perimeter and darker internal spaces, and low-angle sunlight causes glare. This attention to the specifics of each building and site is not common, judging from the uniformity of recent glass towers in recent years.
The prevalence of all-glass towers is also a symptom of a larger problem of universalist design, an idea which was championed in the modernist era and is particularly inappropriate for current times. Universalism posits that a highly engineered, efficiently manufactured design can be deployed everywhere in equal measure, negating cultural or environmental differences.
Our current fascination with all-glass design is similarly based in a fascination with advanced engineering and global application of a single design solution. Even reactive post-modernismwhich rejected most modernist thinking, held onto this idea of cultural uniformity. This assumed that the public read these forms in the same way and associated similar meaning with them; usually western forms, meant to convey conventional Western ideas of family, institutional dignity, and so forth.
As Western architects practicing globally, it is imperative that we acknowledge this pluralism, and not retreat back to the view that one architectural attitude is correct in all places.
Therefore we cannot adopt the position that maximum transparency is both understandable and appropriate in all places. At the time, architecture was in the midst of post-modernism and the conflict between modernism and post-modernism was still being resolved.
|CHAPTER ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION||Almost everyday there are chilling instances of violence, ethnic cleansing, heinous torture, child abuse, man slaughter and several other human rights violations. This research paper introduces the discussion of legal responses to violence against women.|
|SUPPORT STIR||Developments in Constitutional Courts The Constitutional Court of Germany ruled that the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster is not a religion and would not be afforded the same rights as Christian churches. The Supreme Court of Pakistan acquitted a woman isolated in death row for eight years after an accusation of insulting the Prophet Muhammad.|
|How To Submit Your Article:||The Romans divided the peninsula into different provinces and introduced the Latin languageRoman lawand later Christianity to the majority of the peninsula. They were succeeded by a number of Germanic tribes.|
Critical Regionalism refuted them both. It rejected the fundamental placelessness of modernism, which was based in an engineering mindset of efficiency and universalism.
It also rejected the prevalent strain of post-modernism which was really anti-modernismharkening back to the familiar and nostalgic forms of previous eras.
Architecture can only be sustained today as a critical practice if it…distances itself equally from the Enlightenment myth of progress and from a reactionary, unrealistic impulse to return to the architectonic forms of the preindustrial past.
Critical Regionalism proposed a third way which was neither universal nor nostalgic, but required that architecture respond to its context. Rather than reference vernacular forms, however, Frampton proposed that we find ways to respond to regional conditions such as topography, light, temperature, and urban context.
By making these local conditions generative, one was inherently creating a distinct identity; a specific architecture; a sense of place. For example, rather than flattening a site to create a generic buildable surface, one could terrace the site and thereby create a connection to local geologic history while also producing a building with a more particular identity.
Similarly he uses the example of daylight in museums, that resurrects local light conditions in which the works were painted, rather than the universal application of electric lighting which makes all museums homogeneous. Frampton was talking mostly about a psychic connection to a place, its history, and the local conditions that spawn creative diversity.
In practice as a sustainability consultant, each project indeed starts with an assessment of the factors inherent to the specific site; in essence, we establish the elements that define a sense of place. Taken together, these factors establish the conditions for the envelope design, and what will make this envelope distinct from the next.
They also respond to local conditions in a stylistically abstract way, without necessarily resorting to a neo-vernacular approach. Critical Regionalism is therefore a useful framework for assessing glass in buildings because it requires us to look not just at building performance, but at the cultural relevance of the highly glazed design.
As part of our sustainability mission we must address the underlying idea of universalism that begets highly glazed buildings. Salt Lake City is a place of extremes.
In summer it is extremely hot with strong solar insolation. In addition to these climate factors, the L. Last but not least, the laboratory program and user preferences lend themselves to regular, open lab modules combined with small cellular offices.Interaction of façade, shading, and mechanical systems.
While the performance of all-glass buildings is often poor, Gardens by the Bay’s unusual program and location help it to avoid the typical problems. Legal Services India's Law Library is the largest free online collection of laws and regulations, the Library is hailed as the Most comprehencive place for Legal research in India.
CHAPTER 2. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION. The academic literature on regionalism covers the contributions of economics, international relations and international political economy.
Both the perceived nationhood of Spain, and the perceived distinctions between different parts of its territory are said to derive from historical, geographical, linguistic, economic, political and social factors. Both the perceived nationhood of Spain, and the perceived distinctions between different parts of its territory are said to derive from historical, geographical, linguistic, economic, political and social factors.
About 72, years ago, the effects of a major volcanic eruption (Toba) with global consequences killed off many humans.
By some estimates, as few as 2, humans survived the disaster --in Africa.