See Article History Latin American art, artistic traditions that developed in Mesoamerica, Central Americaand South America after contact with the Spanish and the Portuguese beginning in andrespectively, and continuing to the present.
Its land area is approximately 42, square miles, orsquare kilometers, making it slightly larger than the state of Tennessee. It boasts a varied topography, with flatlands in the north the Danubian Plateau and center the Thracian Plain and two large mountain ranges spanning the country from west to east—the Balkans across the center and the Rhodopes across the south.
The Danube River separates Bulgaria from Romania and forms the country's northern border. Bulgaria shares its western border with Serbia and Macedonia and its southern border with Greece and Turkey.
The Black Sea coastline bounds the country to the east. Bulgaria's population numbered about 8.
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Two-thirds of the populace is urban, with over one million people living in the capital city, Sofia. Inethnic Bulgarians accounted for About 85 percent of the population belongs to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.
Smaller numbers are Muslim 13 percentJewish 0.
Since the country cast off Soviet-sponsored Communism in lateBulgarians have increasingly turned to public worship, and religious observance has been on the upswing. The official state language is Bulgarian. Turkish has survived several waves of repression during Communist rule and is the primary language of about eight percent of citizens.
The Bulgarian flag is composed of three horizontal stripes, white, green, and red in color. The country's main agricultural regions—the Danubian and Maritsa plains—grow large quantities of corn, tomatoes, tobacco, wheat, barley, grapes, sugar beets, oil-seeds, potatoes, and soybeans.
The famous crop of the dry and dusty Tundzha Valley, or the "Valley of the Roses," makes Bulgaria the world's largest exporter of attar, or extract, of roses.
For much of the first millennium B. Over the centuries, however, Thrace's lack of a strong, central leadership made it an attractive target for various conquering armies, from the Persians in the sixth century B. When the attenuated Roman Empire divided itself into two parts, Thrace fell under the administration of the eastern, or Byzantine, empire.
By the sixth century A. Almost two centuries later, the Bulgars, a Turkic tribe from central Asia, began their conquest of the region. They, too, assimilated into the larger Slavic population; over time the culture of the warlike, nomadic Bulgar conquerors fused with the ways of the Christianized, agricultural Slav.
What evolved was a unified kingdom whose cultural and military achievement, at its height, rivalled that of Byzantium. The First Bulgarian Kingdom arose in the early ninth century. Aggressive warfare against Byzantium had pushed the borders of Bulgaria to the Carpathian Mountains in the north and to the Aegean Sea in the south.
InBulgarian czar Boris I, perhaps seeking to stabilize relations with Byzantium, made Eastern Orthodox Christianity the official state religion.
Shortly after, Bulgaria established its own patriarchate, independent of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople. Not only did this mean the Bulgarian Orthodox Church could conduct its services in the Slavic language, but it also kept ecclesiastical authority within the country's borders.
The close identification of the Bulgarian Orthodox religion with the nation was a thread that wove through much of the country's history, as the Church repeatedly found itself shouldering the burden of nation-building and acting as sanctuary to Bulgarian culture.
Under the reign of Boris I's son, Czar Simeonthe First Bulgarian Empire reached its maximum size and its golden age of art, literature, and commerce. A handful of monasteries still bear frescoes dating from this period.
After Simeon's reign, the empire began to decline. It was plagued by constant warfare against the Byzantines, the Magyars, and the Kievan Russians and by internal disarray. Inthe Bulgarian czar Samuel lost a decisive battle to the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, who ordered the mass blinding of 14, Bulgarian prisoners.
Bythe whole of Bulgaria had fallen once more under the sway of Byzantine rule. The Second Bulgarian Empire began inwhen the brothers Asen and Peter forced the weakening Byzantine Empire to recognize an independent Bulgarian state.
The brothers made Turnovo their capital. With the ascension of Asen IImedieval Bulgaria reached its zenith in cultural development and in territorial growth. The kingdom extended from the Adriatic to the Black Sea, touching the Aegean at its southern frontier and enveloping Belgrade in the north.
Trade flourished, as did learning, religion, and the arts. Bulgaria entered a second and more brilliant "golden age," and Turnovo was the seat of Slavic culture. This period of relative tranquility ended aroundwhen Tartar invaders were cutting a swath through Europe.Second Language Essay Examples.
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